PARIS — He was the boy wonder of Western politics in 2017, soaring above outmoded cleavages between left and right. He was the whip-smart former banker who was going to turn a tradition-bound society into a start-up nation. He was the liberal bulwark against rising populism in Europe — an anti-Trump.

But with an eye on his next election, President Emmanuel Macron has tacked to the right, alienating former supporters and current members of his own party.

An often incoherent handling of the coronavirus pandemic has dinted Mr. Macron’s competent image. And after three recent Islamist terrorist attacks in France, Mr. Macron has pushed forward bills on security and Islamist extremism that have raised alarms among some French, the United Nations and international human rights groups.

A malleable politician who came out of the left, Mr. Macron has always been known as a shape-shifter. His slide to the right, underway for at least the past year, has picked up steam in recent months and is regarded by some as a clean break from the first three years of his presidency.

The president’s fiscal policies have helped most economic groups, Mr. Pisani-Ferry said, though he acknowledged that the benefits were greater for the wealthy, who had been taxed heavily under Mr. Hollande. Though Mr. Macron has been criticized in France as the president of the rich, increased spending to defuse the Yellow Vest protests and to respond to the coronavirus pandemic has had the effect of helping lower- and middle-income French, he said.

Mr. Macron recently unveiled a 100 billion euro, or $122 billion, stimulus plan to save jobs and businesses at risk because of the pandemic.

An increasing number of early supporters say that a lack of real follow-up on Mr. Macron’s initially progressive social vision — reducing inequality, empowering France’s disadvantaged minorities, focusing on the social causes of crime or Islamist extremism — have left them disillusioned.

“The initial promise — on the ability and willingness to transform society and to be progressive — is betrayed,” Guillaume Chiche, a lawmaker who left Mr. Macron’s party last May, adding, “Emmanuel Macron is a shooting star that is dying out.”

Mr. Chiche is among 36 lawmakers who have left Mr. Macron’s group in the lower house of Parliament for political reasons, depriving him of an outright majority last May. Most quit in protest against Mr. Macron’s rightward tilt.

The break to the right became clearer in recent months as Mr. Macron and France’s other political leaders began staking out positions ahead of the next presidential election, in April 2022.

In a reshuffling of his cabinet, Mr. Macron replaced his left-leaning interior minister with a hard-liner, Gérald Darmanin. Adopting the language of the far right, Mr. Darmanin pledged to bring order to the country — even though the government’s own statistics show that crime isn’t going up.

Given free rein by the president, Mr. Darmanin has led efforts to push forward a security bill that has been widely condemned, and he has conflated Muslim practices with the government’s crackdown on Islamism.

The shift has pleased people like Dominique Schnapper, a sociologist and president of the Council of the Wise, a group created by the education ministry in 2018 to reinforce the secular doctrine in public schools.

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